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September 26, 1833

Proclaimed February 21, 1835

Nogawk's mark, a pictograph from the treaty of July 4, 1805

Articles of a treaty made at Chicago, in the State of Illinois, on the twenty-sixth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, between George B. Porter, Thomas J. V. Owen and William Weatherford, Commissioners on the part of the United States of the one part, and the United Nation of Chippewa, Ottowa and Potawatamie Indians of the other part, being fully represented by the Chiefs and Head-men whose names are hereunto subscribed--which Treaty is in the following words, to wit:

ARTICLE 1st. -- The said United Nation of Chippewa, Ottowa, and Potawatamie Indians, cede to the United States all their land, along the western shore of Lake Michigan, and between this Lake and the land ceded to the United States by the Winnebago nation, at the treaty of Fort Armstrong made on the 15th September 1832--bounded on the north by the country lately ceded by the Menominees, and on the south by the country ceded at the treaty of Prairie du Chien made on the 29th July 1829--supposed to contain about five millions of acres.

ARTICLE 2d--In part consideration of the above cession it is hereby agreed, that the United States shall grant to the said United Nation of Indians to be held as other Indian lands are held which have lately been assigned to emigrating Indians, a tract of country west of the Mississippi river, to be assigned to theM by the President of the United States--to be not less in quantity than five millions of acres, and to be located as follows: beginning at the mouth of Boyer's river on the east side of the Missouri river, thence down the said river to the mouth of Naudoway river, thence due east to the west line of the State of Missouri, thence along the said State line to the northwest corner of the State, thence east along the said State line to the point where it is intersected by the western boundary line of the Sacs and Foxes -- thence north along the said line of the Sacs and Foxes, so far as that when a straight line shall be run therefrom to the mouth of Boyer's river (the place of beginning) it shall include five millions of acres. And as it is the wish of the Government of the United States that the said nation of Indians should remove to the country thus assigned to them as soon as conveniently can be done; and it is deemed advisable on the part of their Chiefs and Headmen that a deputation should visit the said country west of the Mississippi and thus be assured that full justice has been done, it is hereby stipulated that the United States will defray the expenses of such deputation, to consist of not more than fifty persons, to be accompanied by not more than five individuals to be nominated by themselves and the whole to be under the general direction of such officer of the United States Government as has been or shall be designated for the purpose.--And it is further agreed that as fast as the said Indians shall be prepared to emigrate, they shall be removed at the expense of the United States, and shall receive subsistence while upon the journey, and for one year after their arrival at their new homes.--It being understood, that the said Indians are to remove from all that part of the land now ceded, which is within the State of Illinois, immediately on the ratification of this treaty, but to be permitted to retain possession of the country north of the boundary line of the said State, for the term of three years, without molestation or interruption and under the protection of the laws of the United States.

ARTICLE 3d--And in further consideration of the above cession, it is agreed, that there shall be paid by the United States the sums of money hereinafter mentioned: to wit.

One hundred thousand dollars to satisfy sundry individuals, in behalf of whom reservations were asked, which the Commissioners refused to grant: and also to indemnify the Chippewa tribe who are parties to this treaty for certain lands along the shore of Lake Michigan, to which they make claim, which have been ceded to the United States by the Menominee Indians--the manner in which the same is to be paid is set forth in Schedule "A" hereunto annexed.

One hundred and fifty thousand dollars to satisfy the claims made against the said United Nation which they have here admitted to be justly due, and directed to be paid, according to Schedule "B" hereunto annexed.

One hundred thousand dollars to be paid in goods and provisions, a part to be delivered on the signing of this treaty and the residue during the ensuing year.

Two hundred and eighty thousand dollars to be paid in annuities of fourteen thousand dollars a year, for twenty years.

One hundred and fifty thousand dollars to be applied to the erection of mills, farm houses, Indian houses and blacksmith shops, to agricultural improvements, to the purchase of agricultural implements and stock, and for the support of such physicians, millers, farmers, blacksmiths and other mechanics, as the President of the United States shall think proper to appoint.

Seventy thousand dollars for purposes of education and the encouragement of the domestic arts, to be applied in such manner, as the President of the United States may direct--[The wish of the Indians begin expressed to the Commissioners as follows: The united nation of Chippewa, Ottowa and Potawatamie Indians being desirous to create a perpetual fund for the purposes of education and the encouragement of the domestic arts, wish to invest the sum of seventy thousand dollars in some safe stock, the interest of which only is to be applied as may be necessary for the above purposes. They therefore request the President of the United States, to make such investment for the nation as he may think best. If however, at any time hereafter, the said nation shall have made such advancement in civilization and have become so enlightened as in the opinion of the President and Senate of the United States they shall be capable of managing so large a fund with safety they may withdraw the whole or any part of it.]

Four hundred dollars a year to be paid to Billy Caldwell, and three hundred dollars a year, to be paid to Alexander Robinson, for life, in addition to the annuities already granted them--Two hundred dollars a year to be paid to Joseph Lafromboise and two hundred dollars a year to be paid to Shabehnay, for life.

Two thousand dollars to be paid to Wau-pon-eh-see and his band, and fifteen hundred dollars to Awn-kote and his band, as the consideration for nine sections of land, granted to them by the 3d article of the Treaty of Prairie du Chien of the 29th of July 1829 which are hereby assigned and surrendered to the United States.

ARTICLE 4th. A just proportion of the annuity money, secured as well by former treaties as the present, shall be paid west of the Mississippi to such portion of the nation as shall have removed thither during the ensuing three years.--After which time, the whole amount of the annuities shall be paid at their location west of the Mississippi.

ARTICLE 5th--[Stricken out.]

This treaty after the same shall have been ratified by the President and Senate of the United States, shall be binding on the contracting parties.

In testimony whereof, the said George B. Porter, Thomas J. V. Owen, and William Weatherford, and the undersigned chiefs and head men of the said nation of Indians, have hereunto set their hands at Chicago, the said day and year.

G. B. Porter,
Th. J. V. Owen,
William Weatherford,
To-pen-e-bee, his x mark,
Ob-wa-qua-unk, his x mark,
N-saw-way-quet, his x mark,
Puk-quech-a-min-ee, his x mark,
Nah-che-wine, his x mark,
Ke-wase, his x mark,
Wah-bou-seh, his x mark,
Mang-e-sett, his x mark,
Caw-we-saut, his x mark,
Ah-be-te-ke-zhic, his x mark,
Pat-e-go-shuc, his x mark,
E-to-wow-cote, his x mark,
Shim-e-nah, his x mark,
O-chee-pwaise, his x mark,
Ce-nah-ge-win, his x mark,
Shaw-waw-nas-see, his x mark,
Shab-eh-nay, his x mark,
Mac-a-ta-o-shic, his x mark,
Squah-ke-zic, his x mark,
Mah-che-o-tah-way, his x mark,
Cha-ke-te-ah, his x mark,
Me-am-ese, his x mark,
Shay-tee, his x mark,
Kee-new, his x mark,
Ne-bay-noc-scum, his x mark,
Naw-bay-caw, his x mark,
O'Kee-mase, his x mark,
Saw-o-tup, his x mark,
Me-tai-way, his x mark,
Na-ma-ta-way-shuc, his x mark,
Shaw-waw-nuk-wuk, his x mark,
Nah-che-wah, his x mark,
Sho-bon-nier, his x mark,
Me-nuk-quet, his x mark,
Chis-in-ke-bah, his x mark,
Mix-e-maung, his x mark,
Nah-bwait, his x mark,
Che-che-bin-quay, his x mark,
Joseph, his x mark,
Wah-mix-i-co, his x mark,
Sen-e-bau-um, his x mark,
Puk-won, his x mark,
Wa-be-no-say, his x mark,
Mon-tou-ish, his x mark,
No-nee, his x mark,
Mas-quat, his x mark,
Sho-min, his x mark,
Ah-take, his x mark,
He-me-nah-wah, his x mark,
Che-pec-co-quah, his x mark,
Mis-quab-o-no-quah, his x mark,
Wah-be-Kai, his x mark,
Ma-ca-ta-ke-shic, his x mark,
Sho-min, (2d) his x mark,
She-mah-gah, his x mark,
O'ke-mah-wah-ba-see, his x mark,
Na-mash, his x mark,
Shab-y-a-tuk, his x mark,
Ah-cah-o-mah, his x mark,
Quah-quah, tah, his x mark,
Ah-sag-a-mish-cum, his x mark,
Pa-mob-a-mee, his x mark,
Nay-o-say, his x mark,
Ce-tah-quah, his x mark,
Ce-ku-tay, his x mark,
Sauk-ee, his x mark,
Ah-quee-wee, his x mark,
Ta-cau-ko, his x mark,
Me-shim-e-nah, his x mark,
Wah-sus-kuk, his x mark,
Pe-nay-o-cat, his x mark,
Pay-maw-suc, his x mark,
Pe-she-ka, his x mark,
Shaw-we-mon-e-tay, his x mark,
Ah-be-nab, his x mark,
Sau-sau-quas-see, his x mark.

In presence of --

Wm. Lee D. Ewing, secretary to commission,
E. A. Brush,
Luther Rice, interpreter,
James Conner, interpreter,
John T. Schermerhorn, commissioner, etc. west,
A. C. Pepper, S. A. R. P.
Gho. Kercheval, sub-agent,
Geo. Bender, major, Fifth Regiment Infantry,
D. Wilcox, captain, Fifth Regiment,
J. M. Baxley, captain, Fifth Infantry,
R. A. Forsyth, U. S. Army,
L. T. Jamison, lieutenant, U. S. Army,
E. K. Smith, lieutenant, Fifth Infantry,
P. Maxwell, assistant surgeon,
J. Allen, lieutenant, Fifth Infantry,
I. P. Simonton, lieutenant, U. S. Army,
George F. Turner, assistant surgeon, U. S. Army,
Richd. J. Hamilton,
Robert Stuart,
Jona. McCarty,
Daniel Jackson, of New York,
Jno. H. Kinzie,
Robt. A. Kinzie,
G. S. Hubband,
J. C. Schwarz, adjutant general M. M.
Jn. B. Beaubrier,
James Kinzie,
Jacob Beeson,
Saml. Humes Porter,
Andw. Porter,
Gabriel Godfroy,
A. H. Arndt,
Laurie Marsh,
Joseph Chaunier,
John Watkins,
B. B. Kercheval,
Jas. W. Berry,
Wm. French,
Thomas Forsyth,
Pierre Menard, Fils,
Edmd. Roberts,
Geo. Hunt,
Isaac Nash.



(Referred to in the Treaty, containing the sums payable to Individuals in lieu of Reservations.)

Jesse Walker 1500
Henry Cleveland 800
Rachel Hall 600
Sylvia Hall 600
Joseph Laframboise and children 1000
Victoire Porthier and her children 700
Jean Bt. Miranda
Jane Miranda
Rosetta Miranda
Thomas Miranda
For each of whom John
H. Kinzie is Trustee
Alexander Muller, Gholson Kercheval, trustee 800
Paschal Muller, do. do. [do. is short for ditto; one is under "Gholson Kercheval," the other under "trustee".] 800
Margaret Muller 200
Socra Muller 200
Angelique Chevalier 200
Josette Chevallier 200
Joseph Chevalier 400
Fanny Leclare (Captain David Hunter, Trustee) 400
Daniel Bourassa's children 600
Nancy Contraman
Sally Contraman
Betsey Contraman
For each of whom J. B. Campbell is Trustee 600
Alexis Laframboise 800
Alexis Laframbois' children 1200
Mrs. Mann's children 600
Mrs. Mann (daughter of Antoine Ouilmet) 400
Geo. Turkey's children (Fourtier) Th. J. V. Owen Trustee 500
Jacques Chapeau's children do. do. 600
Antonie Roscum's children 750
Francois Burbonnais' Senrs. children 400
Francis Burbonnais' Jnr. children 300
John Bt. Cloutier's children, (Robert A. Kinsie Trustee) 600
Claude Lafromboise's children 300
Antoine Ouilmet's children 200
Josette Ouilmot (John H. Kinzie, Trustee) 200
Mrs. Welsh (daughter of Antoine Ouilmet) 200
Alexander Robinson's children 400
Billy Caldwell's children 600
Mo-ah-way 200
Medare B. Beaubien 300
Charles H. Beaubien 300
John K. Clark's Indian children, (Richard J. Hamilton, Trustee) 400
Josette Juno and her children 1000
Angelique Juno 300
Josette Beaubien's children 1000
Mah-go-que's children (James Kinzie, Trustee) 300
Esther, Rosene and Eleanor Bailly 500
Sophia, Hortense and Therese Bailly 1000
Rosa and Mary children of Hoo-mo-ni-gah wife of Stephen Mack 600
Jean Bt. Rabbu's children 400
Francis Chevallier's children 800
Mrs. Nancy Jamison and child 800
Co-pah, son of Archange 250
Martha Burnett (R. A. Forsyth, Trustee) 1000
Isadore Chabert's child (G. S. Hubbard Trustee) 400
Chee-bee-quai or Mrs. Allen 500
Luther Rice and children 2500
John Jones 1000
Pierre Corbonno's Children 800
Pierre Chalipeaux's children 1000
Phoebe Treat and children 1000
Robert Forsyth of St. Louis Mo 500
Alexander Robinson 5000
Billy Caldwell 5000
Joseph Laframboise 3000
Nis noan see (B. B. Kercheval Trustee) 200
Margaret Hall 1000
James, William, David and Sarah children of Margaret Hall 3200
Margaret Ellen Miller, Mont-
gomery Miller and Finly
Miller, grandchildren of
Margaret Hall.
For each of whom Richard
J. Hamilton of Chicago is
Jean Letendre's children 200
Bernard Grignon 100
Josette Polier 100
Joseph Vieux, Jacques Vieux, Louis Vieux, and Josette Vieux each $100 400
Angelique Hardwick's children 1800
Joseph Bourassa and Mark Bourassa 200
Jude Bourassa and Therese Bourassa 200
Stephen Bourassa and Gabriel Bourassa 200
Alexander Bourassa and James Bourassa 200
Elai Bourassa and Jerome Bourassa 200
M. D. Bourassa 100
Ann Rice and her Son William M. Rice and Nephew John Leib 1000
Agate Biddle and her children 900
Magdaline Laframboise and her son 400
Therese Schandler 200
Joseph Dailly's son and daughter Robert and Therese 500
Therese Lawe and George Lawe 200
David Lawe and Rachel Lawe 200
Rebecca Lawe and Maria Lawe 200
Polly Lawe and Jane Lawe 200
Appotone Lawe 100
Angelique Vieux and Amable Vieux 200
Andre Vieux and Nicholas Vieux 200
Pierre Vieux and Maria Vieux 200
Madaline Thibeault 100
Paul Vieux and Joseph Vieux 200
Susanne Vieux 100
Louis Grignon and his son Paul 200
Paul Grignon Sen'r. and Amable Grignon 200
Perish and Robert Grignon 200
Catist Grignon and Elizabeth Grignon 200
Ursal Grignon and Charlotte Grignon 200
Louise Grignon and Rachel Grignon 200
Agate Porlier and George Grignon 200
Amable Grignon and Emily Grignon 200
Therese Grignon and Simon Grignon 200
William Burnett (B. B. Kercheval Trustee) 1000
Shan-na-nees 400
Josette Beaubien 500
For the Chippewa,Ottawa, and Potawatamie Students at the Choctaw
Academy. The Hon. R. M. Johnson to be the Trustee
James and Richard J. Connor 700
Pierre Duverney and Children 300
Joshua Boyd's Children (Geo. Boyd Esq. to be the Trustee) 500
Joseph Bailly 4000
R. A. Forsyth 3000
Gabriel Godfroy 2420
Thomas R. Covill 1300
George Hunt 750
James Kinzie 5000
Joseph Chaunier 550
John and Mark Noble 180
Alexis Provansalle 100
One hundred thousand dollars __________




(Referred to in the treaty containing the sums payable to individuals, on claims admitted to be justly due, and directed to be paid.)
[See Second Amendment, at end of this treaty.]

Brewster Hogan & Co 343
John S. C. Hogan 50
Frederick H. Contraman 200
Brookfield & Bertrand 100
R. E. Heacock 100
George W. McClure, U. S. A. 125
David McKee 180
Oliver Emmell 300
George Hollenbeck 100
Martha Gray 78
Charles Taylor 187
Joseph Naper 71
John Mann 200
James Walker 200
John Blackstone 100
Harris & McCord 175
George W. Dole 133
George Haverhill 60
William Whistler, U. S. A. 1000
Squire Thompson 100
C. C. Trowbridge 2000
Louis Druillard 350
Abraham Francis 25
D. R. Bearss & Co. 250
Dr. E. Winslow 150
Nicholas Klinger 77
Joseph Porthier 200
Clark Hollenbeck 50
Henry Enslen 75
Robert A. Kinzie 1216
Joseph Ogie 200
Thomas Hartzell 400
Calvin Britain 46
Benjamin Fry 400
Pierre F. Navarre 100
C. H. Chapman 30
James Kinzie 300
G. S. Hubbard 125
Jacque Jenveaux 150
John B. Du Charme 55
John Wright 15
James Galloway 200
William Marquis 150
Louis Chevalier, Adm'r of J. B. Chevalier dec'd 112
Solomon McCullough 100
Joseph Curtis 50
Edward E. Hunter 90
Rachel Legg 25
Peter Lamseet 100
Robert Beresford 200
G. W. & W. Laird 150
M. B. Beaubien 440
Jeduthan Smith 60
Edmund Weed 100
Philip Maxwell, U. S. A. 35
Henry Gratiot 116
Tyler K. Blodgett 50
Nehemiah King 125
S. P. Brady 188
James Harrington 68
Samuel Ellice 50
Peter Menard, Maumee 500
John W. Anderson 350
David Bailey 50
Wm. G. Knaggs 100
John Hively 150
John B. Bertrand, Sen'r 50
Robert A. Forsyth 3000
Maria Kercheval 3000
Alice Hunt 3000
Jane C. Forsyth 3000
John H. Kinzie 5000
Ellen M. Wolcott 5000
Maria Hunter 5000
Robert A. Kinzie 5000
Samuel Godfroy 120
John E. Schwarz 4800
Joseph Loranger 5000
H. B. and G. W. Hoffman 358
Phelps & Wendell 660
Henry Johns 270
Benjamin C. Hoyt 20
John H. Kinzie, in trust for the heirs of Jos. Miranda, dec'd 250
Francis Burbonnais, Senr 500
Francis Burbonnais, junr 200
R. A. Forsyth, in trust for Catherine McKenzie 1000
James Laird 50
Montgomery Evans 250
Joseph Bertrand, jr 300
George Hunt 900
Benjamin Sherman 150
W. and F. Brewster, Assignees of Joseph Bertrand, Senr 700
John Forsyth, in trust for the heirs of Charles Peltier, dec'd 900
William Hazard 30
James Shirley 125
Jacob Platter 25
John B. Bourie 2500
B. B. Kercheval 1500
Charles Lucier 75
Mark Beaubien 500
Catharine Stewart 82
Francis Mouton 200
Dr. William Brown 40
R. A. Forsyth, in trust for heirs of Charles Guion 200
Joseph Bertrand, Senr 652
Moses Rice 800
James Connor 2250
John B. Du Charme 250
Coquilland & Comparet 5000
Richard J. Hamilton 500
Adolphus Chapin 80
John Dixon 140
Wm. Huff 81
Stephen Mack, in trust for the heirs of Stephen Mack, dec'd 500
Thomas Forsyth 1500
Felix Fontaine 200
Jacque Mette 200
Francis Boucher 250
Margaret Helm 2000
O. P. Lacy 1000
Henry and Richard J. Connor 1500
James W. Craig 50
R. A. Forsyth (Maumee) 1300
Antoine Peltier do. 200
R. A. Forsyth, in trust for Wau-se-on-o-quet 300
John E. Hunt 1450
Payne C. Parker 70
Isaac Hull 1000
Foreman Evans 32
Horatio N. Curtis 300
Ica Rice 250
Thomas P. Quick 35
George B. Woodcox 60
John Woodcox 40
George B. Knaggs 1400
Ebenezer Read 100
George Pomeroy 150
Thomas K. Green 70
William Mieure, in trust for Willis Fellows 500
Z. Cicott 1800
John Johnson 100
Antoine Antilla 100
John Baldwin 500
Isaac G. Bailey 100
James Cowen 35
Joseph D. Lane 50
T. E. Phelps 250
Edmund Roberts 50
Augustus Bona 60
E. C. Winter & Co. 1850
Charles W. Ewing 200
Antoine Ouilmett 800
John Bt. Chandonai, ($1000 of this sum to be paid to Robert Stuart, agent of American Fur Company, by the particular request of Jno. B. Chandonai,) 2500
Lowrin Marsh 3290
P. & J. J. Godfroy 2000
David Hull 500
Andrew Drouillard 500
Jacob Beeson & Co. 220
Jacob Beeson 900
John Anderson 600
John Green 100
James B. Campbell 600
Pierre Menard, Jun. in right of G. W. Campbell 250
George E. Walker 1000
Joseph Thebault 50
Gideon Lowe, U. S. A. 160
Pierre Menard, Jun 2000
John Tharp 45
Pierre Menard, Junr. in trust for Marie Tremblê 500
Henry B. Stillman 300
John Hamblin 500
Francois Pagê 100
George Brooks 20
Franklin McMillan 100
Lorance Shellhouse 30
Martin G. Shellhouse 35
Peter Bellair 150
Joseph Morass 200
John I. Wendell 2000
A. T. Hatch 300
Stephen Downing 100
Samuel Miller 100
Moses Hardwick 75
Margaret May 400
Frances Felix 1100
John B. Bourie 500
Harriet Ewing 500
Nancy Hedges 500
David Bourie 500
Caroline Ferry 500
Bowrie & Minie 500
Charles Minie 600
Francis Minie 700
David Bourie 150
Henry Ossum Reed 200
Francoise Bezion 2500
Dominique Rousseau 500
Hanna & Taylor 1570
John P. Hedges 1000
Francoise Chobare 1000
Isadore Chobare 600
Jacob Leephart 700
Amos Amsden 400
Nicholas Boilvin 350
Archibald Clyburn 200
William Conner (Michigan) 70
Tunis S. Wendall 500
Noel Vasseur 800
James Abbott, agent of the American Fur Company 2300
Robert Stewart, agent of the American Fur Company 17000
Solomon Jeauneau 2100
John Bt. Beaubien 250
Stephen Mack, Jnr. 350
John Lawe 3000
Alexis Larose 1000
Daniel Whitney 1350
P. & A. Grignon 650
Louis Grignon 2000
Jacques Vieux 2000
Laframboise & Bourassa 1300
Heirs of N. Boilvin, deceased 1000
John K. Clark 400
William G. and G. W. Ewing 5000
Rufus Hitchcock 400
Reed and Coons 200
B. H. Laughton 1000
Rufus Downing 500
Charles Reed 200
One hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars $175,000

The above claims have been admitted and directed to be paid, only in case they be accepted in full of all claims and demands up to the present date.

G. B. Porter,
Th. J. V. Owen,
William Weatherford.

Agreeably to the stipulations contained in the 3d Article of the Treaty, there have been purchased and delivered at the request of the Indians, goods, provisions and horses to the amount of sixty-five thousand dollars (leaving the balance to be supplied in the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty-four, thirty-five thousand dollars.)

As evidence of the purchase and delivery as aforesaid under the direction of the said Commissioners, and that the whole of the same have been received by the said Indians, the said George B. Porter, Thomas J. V. Owen and William Weatherford, and the undersigned Chiefs and Head-men on behalf of the said United Nation of Indians have hereunto set their hands the twenty-seventh day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three.

G. B. Porter,
Th. J. V. Owen,
William Weatherford,
Jo-pen-e-bee, his x mark,
We-saw, his x mark,
Ne-kaw-nosh-kee, his x mark,
Wai-saw-o-ke-ne-aw, his x mark,
Ne-see-waw-bee-tuck, his x mark,
Kai-kaw-tai-mon, his x mark,
Tshee-Tshee-chin-be-quay, his x mark,
Joseph, his x mark,
Shab-e-nai, his x mark,
Ah-be-te-ke-zhic, his x mark,
E-to-won-cote, his x mark,
Shab-y-a-tuk, his x mark,
Me-am-ese, his x mark,
Wah-be-me-mee, his x mark,
Shim-e-nah, his x mark,
We-in-co, his x mark.

In presence of--

Wm. Lee D. Ewing, secretary to the commission,
R. A. Forsyth, U. S. Army,
Madn. F. Abbott,
Saml. Humes Porter,
Andw. Porter,
Joseph Bertrand, junr.
Jno. H. Kinzie,
James Conner, interpreter,
J. E. Schwarz, adjutant-general, M. M.


Nogawk's mark, a pictograph from the treaty of July 4, 1805


Fay, George E., ed. Treaties Between the Potawatomi Tribe of Indians and the United States of America, 1789 - 1867. Greeley, Colorado, University of Northern Colorado, 1971.

Kappler, Charles J., ed. Indian Treaties 1778-1883. Mattituck, New York, Amereon House, 1972.

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